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Ilorin Local Government Area is one of the areas that make up Kwara State of Nigeria. The investigation is concerned with the primary schools and junior secondary schools. At this level of education all students offer. The study of  has a tremendous role to play in the development of a country. It is concerned with the development of a country. It is concerned with the development of a responsibility for the socializing and humanizing of the child. The focus of this objective is the inculcation of these desirable norms, values, attitudes and behaviour in the growing child to make him fit into the society.In the light of the above, the objectives of in primary schools and junior secondary schools cannot be overemphasized. According to the national policy on education,  in Nigerian primary schools and junior secondary schools should aim at;

1.   Developing the right citizenship as a basis for effective participation in contribution to the life of the society.

2.   Developing in the child the ability to adopt to his changing environment

3.   Inculcating character and moral training and the development of sound mind

4.   Beside, the primary school child should develop appreciation of the dignity of man and liberty

5.   Developing sense of sympathy and compassion for the less fortunate members of the society

6.   Develop sense of respect and tolerance of the opinions of others even in disagreement, and

7.   Develop willingness to accept necessary changes

In purchase of these objectives, the study of, create in the individual the awareness to restructure their goals and objectives in line with the acceptable norms and rule of the society. This will lead to the attainment of a just and egalitarian society, a united, strong and self-reliant nation. Today, the national policy on education in Nigeria clearly spelt our status of, particularly in the primary and junior secondary schools. It is to be offered by;Federal republic of Nigeria: National Policy on Education, Nigerian education research council press, 1981-the pupils as a core subject, implying that, they cannot afford to dispense with it. What needs to make one thoughtful here is that inspite of the present emphasis on science and technology in Nigeria, the national policy on education has given a place of eminence in the scheme of things.The investigator, aware of this tremendous importance of the study of  to the individual and the entire community decided to embark on a study of the problems associated with the teaching of , taking primary school in Ilorin Local Government Area of Kwara State as a case study.


The role of in a developing nation like Nigeria cannot be over emphasized. Suffice it to say that a good knowledge and application of principles of by the citizens of this country will be a great benefit to the nation as a whole. It is a known fact that have not been given a due recognition as a core subject in the past but only now. As a result of recent inclusion in the curriculum as a core subject, there is bound to be factors associated with the teaching and learning of. This investigator wants to look into, such problems militating against the effective teaching and learning of the subject is the acute shortage of the professionally qualified teachers. The number of unqualified teachers our schools is alarming and there is no denying fact that effort effective teaching of any subject is predicated on the caliber of people charged with the responsibility of teaching the subject. Apart from the fact that these set of teachers are not professionally qualified, they care less about teaching personal business at the expense of the children in Ilorin L.G.A. Teacher in primary schools is a factor responsible for pupil’s poor performance in .

According to Daily Times opinion, the survey carried out by the National Teacher Institute in November, 1983 showed that out of 300, 000 teachers in the country, 200, 000 a clear two third were unqualified. A pupil trained by quack teacher under bamboo tree or a shade without the barest facilities, we believe is likely to be denied the self fulfillment and confidence that an adequate education give. In schools where there are enough qualified teachers to handle the various subjects, the performance of the pupils differs from those schools with less qualified teachers.According to Akor (1980), he said that the important of well-qualified and experienced teachers cannot be overemphasized. They are the essential ingredients needed by pupils to learn effectively.Dr. Titus Olikhens, one time Bendel State commissioner for education, in his article stated that ‘shortage of qualified teachers, insufficient provision of instructional materials and teaching methods and lack of incentives for the study were problems militating against the achievement of the objectives of .Norman, A. pebble argued that one of the things affecting the effective teaching of  teachers to provide better explanation which is traceable to their lack of adequate concept and research method’.M. B. Oguniyi et al write that ‘many teachers of  are not trained. The few trained and qualified ones hardly stay as classroom teachers as they find other forms of employment or to higher institution of learning. Combei and Keeves reported qualification and previous experience, perception of professional role; responsibility goal and interest affect the teaching of . In this context, schools with N.C.E. graduates  teachers tend to have better primary six certificate and junior secondary school results than schools with grade II teachers.

Another Problems Noted is Lack of Textbooks

Lack of textbooks is another factors that are responsible for poor performance in . There are no enough and comprehensive books for both the teachers and the pupils or students to use. As a result of non-availability of authentic textbooks, teachers do not give vivid information to the pupils or students in Ilorin L.G.A. The few available ones are out-dated.M. B. Oguniyi et al stated that acute lack of textbooks and other printed materials are inadequate. Funds are not also made readily available for teachers to purchase basic materials needed for improvising apparatus. Also, writing along the same line, I. B. Otitoju stated that many students teachers are likely to find themselves in schools where there are no text books and instructional materials and the students teachers are expected to perform the miracle of teaching pupils , that improvised materials will be of help to the teacher and the pupils. The inability of  teachers to make use of improvised materials kills the interest of pupils staying the subjects.

The method of teaching

The method of teaching  is another factor responsible for poor performance.Bajah in his book said that ‘ teaching at all levels of the country is out dated. The norm is the traditional approach with the teacher at the center of activities and with memorization as the prima means of learning. Although memorization has its place, it cannot on its own arouse the pupil’s real interest and imagination, nor can it capture their involvement in the process of learning.According to Abdullahi (1982), he sated that ‘inspite of orientation courses, some teachers still go back to their schools to teach by the lecture method or textbook method. in this regard, schools where teachers vary their methods of teaching, the pupils tend to understand  more than schools were the teachers use the lecture method to impact knowledge to the pupils. Different method of teaching help to cater for the different abilities of pupils in class and more able to understand better’.According to Maduabum, it is essential for nay teacher of  to became acquainted with teaching methods that will help pupils achieve learning objectives’. Commenting further, he said that several methods exist which  teachers can utilize to ensure effective learning, such method include demonstration method, discussion method, project method, field trip, play away method etc.According to Essien (1978) p. 81, he therefore enumerated some common faults in the teaching of  in primary schools and junior secondary schools;

–   Lack of preparation

–   Lack of interest by teachers

–   Attempting too much problems in the lesson

The size of the classroom

Following the introduction of the Universal Primary Education (UPE), programme into the country, this caused a gigantic increase in pupils population in primary schools. Some schools have almost eight hundred pupils on roll. However, there is no doubt that less time is available for individual attention to the pupils. In most of the classroom, where group work is done, the classes are so noisy and rowdy and the teachers are unable to control the pupils. Such a situation does not allow for effective learning. Due to the number of pupils in the classroom, the teachers use much of the time meant for teaching in controlling the pupils, as such, much work is done in short time because the teachers will now try to teach every thing fort the period in less time. There will be no time left for the teacher to pay attention to individual pupils with individual difference. This does not give room for effective teaching of  and it affect the performance of the pupils in.

Pupils Lack of Interest and unconducive Environments

Unconducive environment and lack of interest affect their performance in schools. S. G. Tunde (1987) in his lecture said, students tend to shy away and become frustrated from the subject because of their poor and this makes them to be weak academically and others think that social sciences is very easy hence little or no attention is paid to the subjects in the classroom.A. M. Maduabum (1984) in his book titled “Teaching  effectively” said ‘pupils come from different socio-economic background. Some may come from rich family, some from poor families and others from what may be regarded as middle class homes. A pupils performance in school is subject to modifications by the amount of time and the kind of home environment to study in the extra moral activities in which he participate and the manner in which he spent his leisure time, all of which are largely dependent upon the socio-economic status of his parents. For instances, a child who hawks rice, banana, beans after school, and come back home fatigues is not likely to perform better than one who is provided with extra coaching courses at home after school and has a good time to study in a relatively stimulating intellectual environment. He further added that a learner’s entry behaviour is his previous background knowledge, which is related to the lesson at home. It facilitates their understanding of the new lesson if he is reminded of it. He further said that ‘the failure of pupils to grasp complex concepts was due to lack of appropriate cognitive preparation’.

Lack of sufficient instructional materials

Lack of sufficient instructional materials generally hinders the teaching and learning of . This fact cannot be over-emphasized, as instructional materials are the only way open to teaching of  to support verbal illustration to sustain the pupil interest for a considerable length of times.M. A. Maduabun pointed out that if  is to be properly learned, the classroom for sole reliance on the inadequate school resources will create an undesirable class majority, he therefore suggested that it is described that teacher should endeavor to improve the quality of their teaching through improvisation, so as to make learning a bit more pleasurable act effective. With the proper use of these materials, teaching can be made more meaningful and concrete. The mere use for these materials however, does not guarantee effective teaching. It is therefore carefully selected and skillful handling of these instructional materials by the teachers that will render useful teaching and learning.M. B. Ogunniyi et al stated that there is active shortage of textbook and other printed materials in our schools. He said that funds are not also made readily available to purchase basic materials needed for improvising, many teachers do not feel motivate to teach.

Teacher’s Poor Motivation

Teacher’s poor motivation is another factor responsible for pupil’s poor performance in .The frequent strikes by teachers in Ilorin L.G.A. of Kwara State as a result of poor service conditions clearly shows that teachers are not motivated to teach well. A poorly motivated  teacher will teach the subject poorly.According to M. B. Ogunniyi many teachers of  are not trained in the subject, the few trained and qualified ones hardly stay as classroom teachers as they find some other forms of employment or go to higher institution, because they are not motivated.Teachers salary are not always paid on time. A hungry teacher will not be motivated to teach.

The Personality and Disposition of Teachers

The personality and disposition of teachers for a long way in affecting the social and moral behavior of the pupils or students. The teachers themselves lack the social qualities they want to the pupils to have. Most teachers in this local government are behaves contrary to the expected norms and values of the society. In attempting to find solution to the above problems, the investigators decided to look at the following specific questions;

1.   Does the quality of teachers influence academic performance?

2.   What role does teachers prepared noted play on academic performances?

3.   What role does textbooks play on academic performance?

4.   Does teachers personality and disposition influence academic excellence?


The study is aimed specifically at analyzing and diagnosing the problems or factors responsible for pupils poor performance or factors responsible for pupils poor performance in , and also seek at providing suitable suggestions that will help improve the teaching and learning of  in primary and junior secondary school in Ilorin L.G.A.It is hoped that the findings of this project work will be immense benefit to  teaching throughout the Local Government Area, since they will be exposed to the factors responsible for pupil’s poor performance in  which is bordering the development of  education. Thus, enabling them tackle effectively such problems in time.


This study hopefully will be useful to teachers in Kwara State in general and Ilorin L.G.A. in particular. The result of this finding will guide the classroom teacher on the methodology to follow when teaching . it will also be of importance to the pupils as their ability will be improved in relation to their cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains. There will an improvement in the pupils thinking ability and their creation skills. It will equally to along way in reforming the individual and making them to conform to the norms and values of the society. In a nation building and national reconstruction for social and economic emancipation of the individual and the Nigerian society.Besides, it will also inculcate in the pupils spirit of enquire and creativity though the exploration of nature and the local environment. Fro example, make them know the objects around, and what they are used for.


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